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Temperature As A Force

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Temperature As A Force
We know that force applied to an object or body causes stress. Stress causes the object to move or causes deformation in the shape and size of the object. Imagine the condition where force is applied in the form of temperature. Temperature is responsible for causing heat, expansion, and contraction of the objects. When force is applied as temperature, the resultant stress is known as Thermal stress.
 
Thermal stress is measured in meter or feet.
 
When a material is quickly heated or cooled, there raises a difference in temperature between the surface of the material and the internal temperature of the material. Swift heating or cooling of the object causes thermal expansion or contraction and induces thermal stress on the material. Depending on the temperature applied on the object deformation is seen. Objects behave differently in various temperature conditions and are shown in the figure below.
To Find Thermal Stress
Consider a rod that expands on heating. The change in length of the rod will be directly proportional to the amount of heat supplied and the coefficient of thermal expansion. Thermal stress is mathematically represented as:

 
Where,
L=length in m

 
Thermal stress is applied in a thermostat. It is a device used to maintain or regulate a constant temperature. The thermostat is used in various electronic devices like air conditioners (AC) and iron box.
 
Now let us make an attempt to study the second law of thermodynamics
 
The second law of thermodynamics explains the process which cannot be reversible. It states that “heat energy cannot be transferred from a body at a lower temperature to a body at a higher temperature without the addition of energy”.
 
According to the Clausius statement
 
It states that “It is impossible to transfer heat from a cold body to a hot body without the loss of work by an external energy source”.
 
It explains that heat transfer occurs immediately in the direction of temperature decrease. Hence it is impossible to construct a refrigerator that operates without any input work.
 
The laws of thermodynamics are important from exam point of view hence make sure you are aware of various applications of these laws.
To know more about thermodynamics in brief and to learn the statements like Clausius statementand Kelvin–Planck statement stay tuned with BYJU’S!
 

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